Tuesday, October 27, 2009




Buddhist Door, Tung Lin Kok Yuen
Hong Kong, 2009

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The concept of ‘zero’ or ‘sunyam’ originated in ancient India. It was derived from the concept of ‘void’ or ‘śūnyatā ’ propagated by Nāgārjuna through his Doctrine of Emptiness or ‘śūnyatā ’. The inclusion of ‘zero’ in mathematics paved way for development of the decimal system for financial transactions.

The Decimal System of numerals is known as Indo-Arabic numerals even today. But it is actually a misnomer. The concept of ‘zero’ and ‘Decimal System of numerals’ first evolved in India and was later adopted by the Arabs. The archeological evidence of ‘zero’ and ‘Decimal System of numerals’ were already found on the Rock Edits of Ashoka (256 B.C.) which was curved several centuries earlier than Arab invasion.

Though the concept of ‘zero’ appeared in the Indian history much earlier, but Nāgārjuna gave a new dimension of ‘nullity’ or ‘emptiness’ to the notion of ‘zero’ and made it more meaningful with regard to our philosophical understandings.

Key words: Emptiness, Mathematics, Zero, Nullity, Void, Nāgārjuna, Śūnyatā.


The concept of ‘zero’ or ‘sunyam’ originated in ancient India. It was derived from the concept of ‘void’ or ‘śūnyatā ’ propagated by Nāgārjuna through his Doctrine of Emptiness or ‘śūnyatā ’.1 However, the concept of ‘void’ existed in Hindu Philosophy before Nāgārjuna. There also existed the derivation of a symbol for it. The early Vedic concept of ‘śūnyatā ’or ‘void’ was later refined by Nāgārjuna who had imparted an intensive philosophical meaning to it.1 Nāgārjuna’s doctrine of ‘śūnyatā’ provided the foundation for Mahāyāna and Vajrāyāna (Tantrāyāna) forms of Buddhism. This Doctrine of Emptiness had deep rooted origin in the Buddha’s Doctrine of Dependent Origination or Impermanence. The concept of ‘śūnyatā’ was influenced by South-east Asian culture through the Buddhist concept of ‘Nibbana’ which means 'attaining salvation by merging into the void of eternity'.2,3

A concept and symbol that connotes nullity represents a qualitative advancement of the human capacity of abstraction. In absence of a concept of ‘zero’ there could have been only positive numerals in computation, the inclusion of ‘zero’ in mathematics opened up a new dimension of negative numerals and gave a cut-off point and a standard in the measurability of qualities whose extremes are still unknown to human beings, such as temperature. Though the exact age of origin of ‘zero’ in Indian mathematics is still unknown, but the archeological evidence of ‘zero’ and ‘Decimal System of numerals’ during the Buddhist period were found on the Rock Edits of Ashoka (256 B.C.).4,5,6

The Buddhist Concept of ‘Śūnyatā’ or ‘Emptiness’
In early Buddhism, the term ‘suññatā’ or ‘śūnyatā’ is used primarily in connection with the ‘no-self’ (anatman) doctrine to denote that the Five Aggregates (skandhas) are ‘empty’ of the permanent self or soul which is erroneously imputed to them.1 The doctrine of emptiness, however, received its fullest elaboration by Nāgārjuna, who wielded it skillfully to destroy the substantiality conceptions of the Abhidharma schools of the Theravāda. Since there cannot be anything that is not the Buddha-nature (buddhatā), all that appears is in truth devoid of characteristics. The doctrine of emptiness is the central tenet of the Mādhyamaka School. A statement of Nāgārjuna's views in support of it may be found in his Mūla-Mādhyamaka-Nārikā.2,3,7

Nāgārjuna is regarded as the founder of the Mādhyamaka school of Mahāyāna Buddhist philosophy which he had established during the 2nd-3rd Century A.D. The ‘Mulamadhyamaka-Karika’ ("Fundamentals of the Middle Way") is his major work. It was originally composed in Sanskrit. The Sanskrit as well as early Tibetan versions of the work had survived without significant damage over the ages along with the later Chinese translations. Several complete English translations of the ‘Karika’ are available in recent times.2,3,7,8

Evolution of the Concept of ‘Zero’ in Modern Mathematics
In mathematics the notion of emptiness finds expression in the number ‘zero’, as well as in contemporary set theory. The concept of ‘zero’ was discovered in India prior to the third century A.D. The "Arabic" number system we use today is neither Arabic nor Greek in origin. In fact, the digits 0123456789 go back to India where they were first created. The ancient Indian number system distinguished itself from other positional systems by virtue of allowing the use of ‘zero’ as a legitimate number. The number ‘zero’ did not exist in Greek mathematics, because the Greeks were essentially geometricians and had no use for the mathematical concept of a non-entity. The concept of ‘zero’ also did not exist in Egyptian mathematics. The Arabs, who encountered the Indian number system during their early conquests in India, found it superior to their own traditional system which used alphabets, and had adapted it to develop Islamic mathematics. The Arabic word for ‘zero’ is "sifr", meaning "empty." In the 12th century, the Italian mathematician Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci studied Arabian algebra and introduced the Hindu-Arabic numerals to Europe. The word "sifr" got transformed into "zephirum" in Latin and subsequently, ‘zero’ in English.1,5

During the first three centuries A.D., the ancient Indians were already using a decimal positional system on a wide scale. In this system, the numerals in different positions represent different numbers and here, one of the ten symbols used was a fully functional ‘zero’. They called it 'Sunyam'. The word and its meaning ‘void’ were obviously borrowed from its use in philosophical literature. Eventually, the Decimal System of calculation evolved from this, which laid the foundation for all the modern arithmetic, mathematics and statistics. 1,4,5,6

The Babylonian System of Numerals
In all early civilizations, the first expression of mathematical understanding appears in the form of counting systems. Numbers in very early societies were typically represented by groups of lines, though later different numbers came to be assigned specific numeral names and symbols (as in India) or were designated by alphabetic letters (such as in Rome). Although today, we take our decimal system for granted, not all ancient civilizations based their numbers on a ten-base system. In ancient Babylon, a hexagesimal (base 60) system was in use. Though the Babylonians used a special symbol for ‘zero’ as early as the 3rd century B.C., they used it only as a place holder and did not have the concept of ‘zero’ as an actual value.1,5

Compared to the Indian system of mathematical calculations, the Babylonian numeration had only three figures, one for 1, one for 10, and one for 100, so that a number, say, 999, would require 27 symbols, namely, nine of each of the symbols. But it is not certain when exactly the invention of this most modest of all numerals took place. The first time it reached Europe was during the Moorish invasion of Spain around 700 A.D. Later, when massive Latin translations of books from Baghdad took place around the close of the first millennium A.D., the concept was found in an arithmetic book dated 820 A.D., by Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khouarizmi , who explained the whole Decimal System in great detail. It was actually the Indian system that explained as the Arabs themselves had no number system of their own.1,5

The Maya civilization of South America also had a ‘zero’ in the first century A.D., but they did not use it in a fixed base system. The Greeks were hampered by their use of letters for the numbers. Before ‘zero’ was invented, the art of reckoning remained an exclusive and highly skilled profession. It was difficult to distinguish, say, 27, 207, 270, 2007, because the latter three were all written 2 7, with a ‘space’ in between. The positional system is not possible in the Roman numeral system which had no expression or symbol for ‘zero’. A number, say, 101,000, would have to be written only by 101 consecutive M’s. The Egyptians had no ‘zero’ and never reached the idea of expressing all numbers with ten digits.1,5

The Evolution of Indian Numeral System
Although the Chinese were also using a decimal based counting system in ancient times, they lacked a formal notational system that had the abstraction and elegance of the Indian notational system. It was the Indian notational system that reached the Western world through the Arabs and has now been accepted as universal. Several factors contributed to this development whose significance is perhaps best stated by French mathematician, Laplace: "The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. Its simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst useful inventions." 1,4,6

(a) The Decimal System in Harappa
The mathematical environment among the Indians was congenial for the invention of ‘zero’ and for its use as the null-value in all facets of calculation. In India a decimal system was already in place during the Harappan period, as indicated by an analysis of Harappan weights and measures. Weights corresponding to ratios of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 have been identified, as have scales with decimal divisions. A particularly notable characteristic of Harappan weights and measures is their remarkable accuracy. A bronze rod marked in units of 0.367 inches points to the degree of precision demanded in those times. Such scales were particularly important in ensuring proper implementation of town planning rules that required roads of fixed widths to run at right angles to each other, for drains to be constructed of precise measurements, and for homes to be constructed according to specified guidelines. The existence of a gradated system of accurately marked weights points to the development of trade and commerce in Harappan society.4,6,9
(b) Mathematical Activity in the Vedic Period
In the Vedic period, records of mathematical activity are mostly to be found in Vedic texts associated with ritual activities. However, as in many other early agricultural civilizations, the study of arithmetic and geometry was also impelled by secular considerations. Thus, to some extent early mathematical developments in India mirrored the developments in Egypt, Babylon and China. The system of land grants and agricultural tax assessments required accurate measurement of cultivated areas. As land was redistributed or consolidated, problems of mensuration came up that required solutions. This meant that an understanding of geometry and arithmetic was virtually essential for revenue administrators. Mathematics was thus brought into the service of both the secular and the ritual domains.4,6,9

Arithmetic operations (Ganit) such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, fractions, squares, cubes and roots are enumerated in the Narad Vishnu Purana attributed to Ved Vyas (pre-1000 BC). Examples of geometric knowledge (rekha-ganit) are to be found in the Sulva-Sutras of Baudhayana (800 BC) and Apasthmaba (600 BC) which describe techniques for the construction of ritual altars in use during the Vedic era. It is likely that these texts tapped geometric knowledge that may have been acquired much earlier, possibly in the Harappan period. Baudhayana's Sutra displays an understanding of basic geometric shapes and techniques of converting one geometric shape (such as a rectangle) to another of equivalent (or multiple, or fractional) area (such as a square). While some of the formulations are approximations, others are accurate and reveal a certain degree of practical ingenuity as well as some theoretical understanding of basic geometric principles. Modern methods of multiplication and addition probably emerged from the techniques described in the Sulva-Sutras.4,6,9,10

A notation for powers of 10 up to the power 17 was already in use even from Vedic times. Single words had been used to denote the powers of the number 10. The numbers one, ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, … were given by the sequence of words in the list: eka, dasa, śata, sahasra, ayuta, laksha, prayuta, koţi, arbuda, abja, kharva, nikharva, mahā-padma, śankha, jaladhi, antya, mahāśankha, parārdha. Thus, the Decimal System was in Indian culture even in the early part of the first millennium B.C. The Yajurveda, in its description of rituals and the mantras employed therein, the Mahabharata and the Ramayanā in their descriptions of statistics and measurements used all these words with total abandon. However, distinct symbols for the numbers 1 to 9 already existed in the Indian system of calculations and the counting system used the base 10 in all its secular, religious and ritual activities. These two factors were unique to Indian culture and contributed most to the thought process that led to the decimal place value notation as well as ’zero’ having a value.1,4,6,9

(c) Brahminical Philosophy and Mathematics
Indian philosophical doctrines also had a profound influence on the development of mathematical concepts and formulations. In the Upanishadic world view of Brahmanism, space and time were considered limitless. This led to a deep interest in developing very large numbers and evolution of the definitions of infinite numbers. Infinite numbers were created through recursive formulae, as in the Anuyoga Dwara Sutra.4,6,10

(d) Philosophy of Jainism and Mathematics
Like the Upanishadic world view, the Jain cosmology also regarded space and time as limitless. Jain mathematicians recognized five different types of infinities that included, infinite in one direction, in two directions, in area, infinite everywhere and perpetually infinite. Since Jain epistemology allowed for a degree of indeterminacy in describing reality, it probably helped in grappling with indeterminate equations and finding numerical approximations to irrational numbers. Permutations and combinations are listed in the Bhagvati Sutras (3rd C BC) and Sathananga Sutra (2nd C BC). In Satkhandagama, various sets are operated upon by logarithmic functions to base two, by squaring and extracting square roots, and by rising to finite or infinite powers. The operations are repeated to produce new sets. In other works the relation of the number of combinations to the coefficients occurring in the binomial expansion is noted.4,6,9,10

(d) Buddhist Philosophy and Mathematics
Buddhist literature also demonstrates an awareness of indeterminate and infinite numbers. Buddhist mathematics was classified either as Garna (Simple Mathematics) or Sankhyan (Higher Mathematics). Numbers were deemed to be of three types: Sankheya (countable), Asankheya (uncountable) and Anant (infinite). Nāgārjuna’s Doctrine of Emptiness or Śūnyatā had paved the way for the development of the concept of ‘nullity’ and ‘infinity’ in modern mathematics.4,6,10

(e) Contribution of Brahmagupta to Modern Mathematics 1,4,5,6,9,10
Philosophical formulations concerning Shunya - i.e. emptiness or the void may have facilitated in the introduction of the concept of ‘zero’. While the ‘zero’ (bindu) as an empty place holder in the place-value numeral system appears much earlier, algebraic definitions of the ‘zero’ and its relationship to mathematical functions appear in the mathematical treatises of Brahmagupta in the 7th C AD. Although scholars are divided about how early the symbol for ‘zero’ came to be used in numeric notation in India, (Ifrah arguing that the use of ‘zero’ is already implied in Aryabhatta) tangible evidence for the use of the ‘zero’ begins to proliferate towards the end of the Gupta period. Between the 7th C and the 11th C, Indian numerals developed into their modern form, and along with the symbols denoting various mathematical functions (such as plus, minus, square root etc) eventually became the foundation stones of modern mathematical notation.

Counting boards with columns representing units and tens were in use from very ancient times in India. The numberless content of an empty column in course of time was symbolized to be ‘nothing’. The thriving activity in astrology, astronomy, navigation and business during the first few centuries A.D. in India also looked forward for a superior numerical system that lent itself to complicated calculations.

The ancient India astronomer Brahmagupta is credited with having put forth the concept of ‘zero’ for the first time. Brahmagupta is said to have been born the year 598 A.D. at Bhillamala (today's Bhinmal ) in Gujarat, Western India. His name as a mathematician was well established when King Vyaghramukha of the Chapa dynasty made him the court astronomer. Among his two treatises, Brahma-sputa siddhanta and Karanakhandakhadyaka, first one is more famous. It was a corrected version of the old Astronomical text, Brahma siddhanta. It was in his Brahma-sphu siddhanta, for the first time ever that he had formulated the rules of the operation ‘zero’, foreshadowing the Decimal System numeration. With the integration of ‘zero’ into the numerals, it became possible to note higher numerals with limited characters. Since, Nāgārjuna’s Doctrine of Emptiness or Śūnyatā was quite popular in Indian society during the time of Brahmagupta, there is a high probability that Brahmagupta was inspired by this Doctrine of Emptiness. Thus, the philosophical concept of ‘emptiness’ or ‘śūnyatā ’ or ‘void’ gave rise to the concept of ‘zero’ in Indian mathematics. Subsequently, this became the foundation for modern mathematics.

Brilliant as it was, this invention was no accident. In the Western world, the cumbersome Roman numeral system posed as a major obstacle, and in China the pictorial script posed as a hindrance. But in India, almost everything was in place to favor such a development. There was already a long and established history in the use of decimal numbers, and philosophical and cosmological constructs encouraged a creative and expansive approach to number theory. Panini's studies in linguistic theory and formal language and the powerful role of symbolism and representational abstraction in art and architecture may have also provided an impetus, as might have the rationalist doctrines and the exacting epistemology of the Nyaya Sutras, and the innovative abstractions of the Syadavada and Buddhist schools of learning.

In the earlier Roman and Babylonian systems of numeration, a large number of characters were required to denote higher numerals. Thus, enumeration and computation was a cumbersome process. According to the Roman system of numeration, the number thirty would have to be written as XXX. But as per the Decimal System it would 30. Similarly, as per the Roman system, the number thirty three would be written as XXXIII. But as per the Decimal System, it would be 33. Thus, it is clear how the introduction of the Decimal System made possible the writing of numerals having a high value with limited characters. This also made computation easier.

Apart from developing the Decimal System based on the incorporation of ‘zero’ in enumeration, Brahmagupta also arrived at solutions for indeterminate equations of 1 type ax2+1=y2 and thus can be called the founder of higher branch of mathematics called numerical analysis. Brahmagupta's treatise Brahma-sputa-siddhanta was translated into Arabic under the title Sind Hind. For several centuries this translation remained a standard text of reference in the Arab world. It was from this translation of an Indian text on Mathematics that the Arab mathematicians perfected the Decimal System and gave the world its current system of enumeration which we call the Arab numerals, which are originally Indian numerals.

‘Zero’ and the Place-Value Notation
The number ‘zero’ is the subtle gift of the Indians of antiquity to mankind. The concept itself was one of the most significant inventions in the ascent of Man for the growth of culture and civilization. It must be credited with the enormous usefulness of its counterpart, the place value system of expressing all numbers with just ten symbols. The concept of ‘zero’ had revolutionarized our way of thinking and helped the mankind to simplify all computations during the last two millennia. The binary system also evolved from this ‘zero’ concept and it became the foundation for communicating with computers.1,5,8

In spite of the ‘zero’ being so crucial to our day to day calculations and living, it took centuries for the western world to appreciate and incorporate this most valuable numeral, ‘zero’, in their recording of accounts or in scholarly writings. By the time ‘zero’ reached the West, the Dark Ages of the western world had begun. However, there are traces of its knowledge in Spain in the tenth century A.D. But the final breakthrough of the introduction to the West was by Leonardo of Pisa, through his popular text Liber Abaci, 1202 A.D., the first European book (in French) that used the ‘zero’ appeared in 1275.1,5,8

Application of the Concept of Emptiness in Modern Mathematics
In ancient India the numeral of ‘void’ or ‘sunyam’ was used in computation. It was indicated by a dot and was termed ‘Pujyam’. Even today we use this term for ‘zero’ along with the more current term ‘Sunyam’ meaning a blank. But the term ‘Pujyam’ also means holy. ‘Param-Pujya’ is a prefix used in written communication with elders where it means respected or esteemed. The reason why the term ‘Pujya’, meaning blank, came to be sanctified is still unknown.1,4,6,9

Indian philosophy has glorified concepts like the material world being an illusion or ‘Maya’. The act of renouncing the material world is ‘Tyaga’ and the goal of merging into the void of eternity is ‘Nibbana’. The mathematical concept of ‘zero’ might have got a philosophical connotation of reverence from these.1,4,6,10

It is possible that like the technique of algebra, the concept of ‘zero’ also reached the west through the Arabs. In ancient India the terms used to describe ‘zero’ included ‘Pujyam’, ‘Sunyam’, ‘Bindu’. The concept of a void or blank was termed as ‘Shukla’ and ‘Shubra’ which also means white or purity. The Arabs referred to the ‘zero’ as ‘Siphra’ or ‘Sifr’ from which we have the English terms Cipher or Cypher. In English the term Cipher connotes ‘zero’ or any Arabic numeral. Thus, it is evident that the term Cipher is derived from the Arabic ‘Sifr’ which in turn is quite close to the Sanskrit term ‘Shubra’.1,4,6,9

In the ancient Indian context, the number ‘zero’ did not originally refer to nothingness or nullity. The Sanskrit word for ‘zero’ is ‘sunyam’, which means "puffed up, hollow, empty." The ‘zero’ stands for emptiness suggestive of potentiality. The discovery of the mathematical ‘zero’ concurred with the emptiness of prajna-intuition in India around 200 BC. The concept of ‘zero’ evolved to signify polar opposition between being and nonbeing. ‘zero’ is that which contains all possible polarized pairs such as (+1, -1), (+2, -2), etc. It is the collection of all mutually cancelling pairs of forward and backward movements. Put it another way, ‘zero’ is fundamental to all existence. Because of it, everything is possible. ‘zero’ is the additive identity, the focal point of all numbers. The numbers cannot be created without the ‘zero’. Among the great civilizations of antiquity, India alone was able to fathom the depth of emptiness and willing to accept its importance in mathematics. Following the introduction of the Indian-Arabic numerals into Western culture, ‘zero’ became a number that was used in calculations like any other number. Consequently, it lost some part of its original meaning, namely the part that suggests potentiality. Today, most mathematicians do not associate the notion of emptiness with ‘zero’, but with the ‘Empty Set’ which is a construct of set theory. This notion of emptiness is also now associated with the ‘Null Hypothesis Testing’ in statistical methods which is the backbone of modern research. Thus, it is evident that Nāgārjuna’s doctrine of ‘śūnyatā’ provided the foundation for modern epidemiology and biostatistics.1,4,6,8,10

Emptiness and Null Set: The Evolution of Natural Numbers 1,4,6,9
A set is a collection of objects or numbers. For example, the set { 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 } is a set of numbers containing five elements; it is therefore said to have the "cardinality" of 5. The Null Set or Empty Set { } is a collection that contains nothing and has the cardinality 0. The mathematician John von Neumann (1923) invented a method, known as von Neumann hierarchy, which can be employed to generate the natural numbers from the empty set as follows:
Step 0: { } (empty set)
Step 1: { { } } (set containing the empty set)
Step 2: { { }, { { } } } (set containing previous two sets)
Step 3: { { }, { { } } , { { }, { { } } } } (set containing previous three sets)
Step 4: { { }, { { } } , { { }, { { } } }, { { }, { { } } , { { }, { { } } } } } (set containing previous four sets etc.)

This sequence is obtained by iterating a function that creates a new set from the union of the preceding two sets, thus generating sets with the cardinalities 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ad infinitum. In less mathematical terms, the principle can be described as follows: Beginning with emptiness (step 0), we observe emptiness. Through the act of observing we create an entity containing emptiness (step 1). Now we perceive emptiness, as well as an entity. From the combination of the former two we create another entity by observation, which is different from the first entity (step 2). This process is repeated again and again. Interestingly, if we define suitable operations on the obtained sets based on union and intersection, the cardinalities of the resulting sets behave just like natural numbers being added and subtracted. The sequence is therefore isomorphic to the natural numbers - a stunningly beautiful example of something from nothing.

Emptiness and Null Hypothesis 1,4,6,8,10
The concept of ‘nullity’ in the ‘Null Hypothesis’ is the backbone of modern scientific research and statistical methods. The acceptance or rejection of Null Hypothesis is the fundamental basis of our scientific understandings. At the Beginning of any research, the researchers need to take a neutral stand by assuming that a set of suspected correlates or determinants are neither related not non-related to the outcome variable that is examined in the study. This neutral position by the researchers is actually the application of emptiness in order to remain unbiased throughout the study. However, the Null Hypothesis states that there is no relationship between a correlate or determinant and an outcome. In case any relationship is observed, it is merely due to chance. So, the researchers need to analytically judge from the results of their research findings on whether to accept or reject the Null Hypothesis. Various probability oriented statistical models are applied to test this Null Hypothesis in every research in order to establish the actual truth by attaching logical and analytical judgment to the findings. All these efforts are directed towards minimizing the chance factor to establish the truth with accuracy in the light of our fundamental understandings and logical reasoning. Nāgārjuna’s doctrine of ‘śūnyatā’ provided the foundation for this insight in modern epidemiology and biostatistics.

It is interesting to know how the ‘Sunyam’ of the Indians became the ‘zero’ of the modern world. The 'Sunya' of Sanskrit became the Arabic ‘sifr’ which means empty space. In Medieval Latin it manifested as ‘ciphra’, then in Middle English as ‘siphre’, in English as ‘cypher’ and in American as ‘cipher’. In the middle ages, the word ‘ciphra’ evolved to stand for the whole system. In the wake of this general meaning, the Latin ‘zephirum’ came to be used to denote the ‘Sunyam’. And that entered English finally as ‘zero’. In medieval Europe, some countries banned the positional number system, along with ‘zero’, brought by the Arabs whom they considered as heathens. So, they considered the ‘Sunyam’ to be a creation of the devil. As a result ‘ciphra’ came to mean a secret code. The term ‘deciphering’ later evolved from this which meant ‘resolution of a code’.1,4,5,6

The Decimal System of numerals is known as Indo-Arabic numerals even today. But it is actually a misnomer. The concept of ‘zero’ and ‘Decimal System of numerals’ first evolved in India and was later adopted by the Arabs. The archeological evidence of ‘zero’ and ‘Decimal System of numerals’ were already found on the Rock Edits of Ashoka (256 B.C.) which was curved several centuries earlier than Arab invasion.1,4,5,6

Though the concept of ‘zero’ appeared in the Indian history much earlier, but Nāgārjuna gave a new dimension of ‘nullity’ or ‘emptiness’ to the notion of ‘zero’ and made it more meaningful with regard to our philosophical understandings. The historical evidences imply that the Indian contribution of ‘zero’, which had eventually led to the evolution of the Decimal System of numbers, was a significant milestone in modern mathematics and had changed our way of thinking and understanding forever.


1. Knierim, T. 2009. Emptiness is Form [serial online]. [Cited 2009 October 20]; [4 screens]. Available from: URL: http://www.thebigview.com/buddhism/emptiness.html

2. Bowker, J. 1997. Śūnyatā. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. UK: Encyclopedia.com. [Serial online]. [Cited 2009 April 28]; [2 screens]. Available from: URL: http://www.encyclopedia.com

3. Garfield, J.L. 1995. The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way: Nagarjuna's Mulamadhyamakakarika, translation (from Tibetan) and commentary. New York: Oxford University Press.

4. Srinivasiengar, C.N. 1967. The History of Ancient Indian Mathematics. Calcutta, India: World Press Private Ltd.

5. Juskevic, A.P., Demidov, S.S., Medvedev, F.A., Slavutin, E.I. 1974. Studies in the History of Mathematics. Moscow: Nauka: 220-222; 302.

6. Murthy, T.S.B. 1992. A Modern Introduction to Ancient Indian Mathematics. New Delhi, India: Wiley Eastern Ltd.

7. Williams, P. 2009. Mahāyāna Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations, 2nd edition. UK: Routledge: 69-82.

8. Finkelstein, D.R., Wallace, B.A. ed. 2001. Emptiness and Relativity. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

9. Datta, B., Singh, A.N. 1962. History of Hindu mathematics. India: Asia Publishing House.

10. Rao, S.B. 1994. Indian Mathematics and Astronomy. Bangalore, India: Jnana Deep Publications.

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